On top of the global disaster statistic that has been recorded by GAR 2015 for the period 2005-2014, it also providing country level assessment report for the government and relevant administration to plan ahead and taking preventive measured to reduce the disaster risk in their own country.
Based on the Malaysia profile in Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015, although we are not among the top country that expose to severe and frequent disasters, however, the economic lost from disaster and its future trend cannot be negligible.
Based on the Frequency of Disaster Event in Malaysia for the period 1990-2014, the most frequent disaster that occurring in Malaysia is Flood (62.5%), followed by Storm (12.5%), Landslide and Wildfire consist of 8.3% respectively. Interestingly, Earthquake covered about 2.1% of the total disaster recorded for the last 15 years.
Although flooding is the major disaster in Malaysia, but the highest mortality from disaster is actually caused by Storm (39,9%), flooding (24.1%), and landslide (13.9%).
In terms of economic lost, flood causing almost 60% of the total economic lost caused by the disaster. Followed by earthquake (23.4%), wildfire (14.1%) and storm (2.5%). In Malaysia, in average there are two disaster events happening annually with mortality rate of 10 deaths and economic lost of $127 million USD per annul.
Probabilistic Risk Study of Disaster in Malaysia
Flooding stays as the most risky natural disaster in Malaysia with estimated annual lost of $1.2 Billion USD, followed by Earthquake $10 million USD, Tsunami $5.5 million USD and lastly storm surge $0.5 million USD. Based on the probabilistic risk analysis result from GAR 2015, the risk of earthquake damage should be taken seriously looking into immediately as Malaysia is surrounded by the ring of fire and there are increasing recorded earthquake activity occurred locally.
The Average Annual Loss is the expected loss per annum associated to the occurrence of future perils assuming a very long observation timeframe. It considers the damage caused on the exposed elements by small, moderate and extreme events and results a useful and robust metric for risk ranking and comparisons.
AAL Flood results are provisional. These results give an overview of the risk associated with river flooding. Factors other than the depth of the water also have a considerable influence on loss, which means that there is greater uncertainty compared with other hazards.
Risk and development implications index. This index is useful to provide a ranking of the countries based on the ratio of the expected Average Annual Loss (AAL) with relation to a set of relevant macroeconomic, financial, and social development variables. It attempts to reveal the weight of the AAL with respect to the social expenditure, the capital formation (domestic investment) and reserves (financial capacity), and the produced capital or capital stock (assets at risk) and savings (treasury) of each country. It reflects, in adverse conditions, growth and social constraints for the country as a result of potential future disasters.
The fiscal portfolio is composed by the government buildings, public education and health buildings, and low income residential private buildings.
Probable Maximum Loss
Based on the GAR 2015 Probable Maximum Loss, Malaysia is facing great threat from the returning earthquake of 20 years. For tsunami hazard, centennial returning tsunami like the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami posses the real threat. However, the threat returning flooding event result is not shown in the following table.
One of the interesting finding is GAR2015 shows there is a Volcano in Malaysia without more details information about it.